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随着炎热夏季的到来,更多家庭外出旅游,而医生也接到越来越多关于孤星蜱虫Lone Star Tick的案例。


在美国东南地区,每天都有1丶2例被咬的报告,北卡洛琳娜大学University of North Carolina已经接待过被咬的537名病人,而这种蜱虫也在全美肆虐,从乔治安娜州丶明尼苏达州丶新罕布什尔州到纽约长岛...


更可怕的是,这种蜱虫的唾液含有的成分一旦进入体内,无药可救甚至威胁生命,被咬后终身不能再吃红肉。





你不知道的孤星蜱虫Lone Star Tick


引起过敏的孤星蜱虫因为雌虫背上长着一个白色"小星星"而得名,孤星蜱虫引起的病症是几年前首先在美国东部和西南部发现的。


雌性蜱虫身上有一颗白色的点,所以取名孤星蜱虫


北卡洛琳娜大学University of North Carolina过敏和免疫学副教授Scott Commins介绍说,这种孤星蜱虫大约10年前,在美国东部和西南部被发现,当时有患者在吃过汉堡后全身肿大,有过敏反应。后来越来越多的患者因为吃红肉而过敏,大约200例患者都是这样的情况,而且奇怪的是,他们之前都不会对红肉过敏。


医生对这些患者进行了详细的检查和询问,发现他们的共同点是都曾被蜱虫咬过。之后有患者还把咬自己的蜱虫抓住,带给医生查看,最后发现了这种“孤星蜱虫”。


研究发现,这种孤星蜱虫唾液中含有一种人体内没有的糖分alpha-gal,日常我们吃的红肉(牛丶羊丶猪等)中也有alpha-gal。人体通过食物摄入alpha-gal不会有问题,但是虫子唾液中的alpha-gal就会引起免疫系统的抵抗。免疫系统会把虫子携带的alpha-gal当做"外来杂质",从而产生持续存在的抗体。这样一来,下次再吃红肉时,抗体会一直产生作用引发严重过敏反应。


美国网友爆料自己的9岁儿子今年就被孤星蜱虫咬了




孤星蜱虫体型大 攻击性强


孤星蜱虫的特征是体型更大一些,攻击性和其他蜱虫比起来高达两倍之多。


它们喜欢埋伏在草丛里,攻击接近的任何生物无论是宠物还是人类。美国疾病控制与预防中心CDC警告,这种蜱虫在生命的任何阶段不论是幼虫还是成功,都非常“好斗丶有攻击性” “may be quite aggressive”。


有研究人员指出:"它们会主动出击的,攻击性比较强。我研究一只蜱虫的时候,尽管给它吃饱了,放出来的时候它还是迅速爬向我。"


被孤星蜱虫咬到之后,对肉类的过敏反应少则3天,多则30天就会体现。


一旦吃红肉,就会出现类似荨麻疹的过敏反应,伴有呕吐丶腹泻丶发烧丶抽筋丶身体疼痛丶全身肿胀丶犹如火烧,呼吸困难丶过敏性休克等反应。


如果被咬到,以后就永远不能吃羊肉丶牛肉丶猪肉了!但还是可以吃鸡肉鸭肉和鱼...



被蜱虫咬到后的伤口



如何预防蜱虫?


穿浅色衣物,这样黑色的蜱虫附上来时容易被发现丶清除。

穿长裤丶长袖衣物,包脚的鞋子,并把裤脚掖到袜子里。

使用含有DEET成分的蜱虫驱逐剂,喷到裸露的皮肤和衣物上。

外出(尤其是野营)后自己检查身上是否有虫子,使用全身镜检查背后。

CDC发布的美国孤星蜱虫的分布图



身上有蜱虫怎样安全去除?


千万不要用手硬捏硬拉,因为硬拉会将蜱虫身体拽碎,而口器还留在人体内感染。

CDC建议先用酒精丶烟头接触蜱虫刺激,它的口器和头部会缩回。

之后用干净的镊子夹住蜱虫身体,尽量夹住全部的身体包括头部,将它迅速夹走放进密封瓶子,以帮助医生诊断。

最后要确认蜱虫包括头部都全部被拔出,然后赶快到医生处接受验血和检查。



孤星蜱虫害怕酒精,会受刺激头部回缩。


外出游玩露营、爬山,一定要小心各种虫害,更要小心这种孤星蜱虫,不然这辈子都没法品尝到好吃的羊肉和牛肉啦~~


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Just Another Chinese Landscape Painting?

2017-09-28 18:05:44 China Minutes

Last week Shanghai landscape painter Wu Ke was invited to London's Cookhouse Gallery at Chelsea College of Arts to present Another Landscape exhibition showcasing 30 landscape paintings the artist created between 2015 and 2017.

Wu Ke (centre left) after a discussion about his work.

Wu Ke entered the London art scene with a refreshing take on a very traditional and often misunderstood art form. Although not straying from the principles of traditional Chinese painting his daring combination of bold color and traditional ink and wash are probably producing raised eyebrows among the traditional Chinese painting elites back home.

Wu Ke combines an ancient method with modern colors.

Wu Ke explains “I try to combine the ancient thought and methods which constitute a traditional Chinese painting, but I also make use of modern colors.” In a sense it is adapting traditional styles to modern tastes, I believe that is why my work has received such a positive reception.”

A visitor to the exhibition drawing inspiration from Wu Ke's artwork.

Visitor Eve Townshend was enticed by Wu Ke's style “I like the snowflake effect” she said when gazing at Wu Ke’s use of ink and wash, another visitor claimed “it reminds me of a Monet.”

Yet the concept and principles behind a Chinese landscape painting are very profound and as Wu Ke says “to really understand traditional Chinese painting one must also have a degree of understanding in traditional Chinese literature and philosophy as well as a degree of self-cultivation.” It is these principles rooted in Daoist philosophy that a Chinese painter strives to achieve in his work to create a harmonious composition.

'Elegant matters aside the mountain stream' Wu Ke

It seemed Wu Ke was making a conscious effort to stand out from his peers, not content to put on just another landscape painting exhibition. With the name of his series Mountains and Water with a Difference we are reminded of the limitations and norms the artist has attempted to transcend during his own creative process. Other series included the sublime Seeking the Dao and the more down to earth Intimate Friend.

It is no simple task combining ancient and modern worlds in art, yet Wu Ke is among that small band of Chinese artists who attempts to do just that.

Photography by Huang Han Jie.

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